A 70-year-old female presents with acute
pulmonary oedema. She is known to have mitral stenosis and when last seen in
clinic 6 months prior to presentation she had been in sinus rhythm. She hast
fast atrial fibrillation and pulmonary oedema.
Which of the following physical signs are
you likely to elicit in this patient?
“a” wave in JVP
4th heart sound
3rd heart sound
Presystolic accentuation of mid-diastolic murmur